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One hot afternoon in July of 1941, a young woman—name and age unreported—opened up a lemonade stand in Western Springs, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. The “little girl,” as newspaper accounts later described her, plied her friends and passing strangers with refreshing glasses of lemonade in a makeshift stand just outside of her home. She sometimes sampled her own supply.

Within weeks, the county’s health department was knocking on her door. They asked questions about the chain of lemonade custody and her sanitary practices. It turned out that the budding entrepreneur had failed to rinse the glasses she gave to her customers after they had been used. As a result, she had contracted polio, and so had four of her young friends. According to the Associated Press, the outbreak of the disease was no less than the “hottest trail of the deadly disease virus in the history of epidemiology.”

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Kids' lemonade stands have long been a symbol of adolescent capitalism. And though contracting a paralyzing viral infection seems a heavy price to pay for patronizing one, as it turns out, these refreshment pop-ups have a long and sordid history. For many, they've been a downright dirty business.

Because the act of peddling lemon-flavored water in the street is not inherently newsworthy, it can be difficult to pinpoint exactly how, when, and where the practice first originated. We know that people in 11th century Cairo wrote about a drink with lemon juice being sold in open markets. In 17th century France, vendors dispensed lemon water from backpacks, allowing them to follow customers around; their popularity may have been helped in part by the fact that the lemonade was often alcohol-infused. At upscale French cabarets selling fashionable, sweet drinks, proprietors took to calling themselves limonadiers, or lemonaders. Though they sold far more than just booze-fueled lemonade, the label helped distinguish their refined spaces from the seedier wine merchants of the era.

There are scant references made to lemonade stands in America throughout the 1800s. The New York Daily Herald mentioned a stand as part of a “ladies fair” in October 1839; in 1853, a woman operating a stand in Cincinnati reportedly confronted two men who had insulted her, tearing the coattails of one “rowdy” clean off; in 1873, an unnamed student at Cornell University was said to be helping pay his way through college by managing a stand in his student hall.

These were likely earnest enterprises. The same couldn’t be said of the disingenuous peddlers in 1860s New York, who perceived the docking immigrants as easy marks. Rather than invest in quality ingredients, lemonade merchants instead filled dirty wooden or tin pails with a murky substance consisting of water, molasses, and vinegar. The muck was topped with sliced lemon rinds to give it the appearance of something ingestible. For many people looking for a fresh start in America, their first taste of freedom may have literally been a fetid concoction of cheap sugar water.

By 1880, vendors were a common sight throughout New York City [PDF]. In blistering heat, soda fountains and bars often found themselves being outmatched by lemonade stands that had relatively little overhead and could charge just five cents a glass instead of the 15 cents charged by shops. “This cheap lemonade business has come very much to the front in New York within the last year or two, and it is an excellent idea,” The New York Times concluded.

While many of these vendors were adults, the barrier to entry was low enough to entice business minds of all ages. In the 1870s, a Dutch immigrant named Edward Bok—who may have seen and been repulsed by the sludge offered upon his family's entry into the country—noticed that horse carriages passing by his home and heading toward Coney Island often stopped so that the horses could have water and passengers could get a drink at a nearby cigar shop. Bok found it was curious that only the men would go inside the shop, leaving women and children to wait until they arrived at their destination to get a beverage.

Sensing an opportunity, Bok bought a clean pail and attached three hooks to it to hold three glasses. When the horse cars stopped, he jumped on and offered ice water to everyone on board for one penny a glass. Bok made 30 cents for every pail he emptied and did brisk business on weekends. But soon competitors moved in, and Bok was forced to up his game. He began squeezing lemons into water, added sugar, and sold the tastier drink for three cents a glass.

While Bok was far from the only lemonade hustler in the country, he might have been the most influential. When he was profiled in an authorized biography in 1921, The Americanization of Edward Bok, the story of his childhood lemonade business struck a chord. Bok was already a celebrity thanks to his editorial duties with the Ladies Home Journal, and his book won a Pulitzer Prize. If a lemonade stand was good enough for Bok, it was good enough for any kid.

Throughout the 20th century, the stands grew to become allegorical lessons in free enterprise. If a child wanted a bicycle, a simple investment and a work ethic could potentially produce enough income to purchase one. Baked into the business model were lessons in accounting, inventory, and customer testimony—a busy stand invited more onlookers to come and sample the wares.

More recently, some states have cracked down on stands, citing health and safety concerns and forcing a business model involving permits and an understanding of zoning laws. Country Time, which makes lemonade mixes, pledgedWomen's Lavatta Coal Braid Sandal H Thyme Putty Heeled Coclico Black RWqwO7Rd $60,000 in grants this summer to help kids pay fines related to their stands.

As for the polio-ridden lemonade stand in Western Springs: While unsanitary practices led to five illnesses, researchers also discovered an additional seven people were carriers but showed no symptoms. The outbreak provided valuable information on how easily the virus could be transmitted and how long a carrier could harbor the infection. By 1954, Jonas Salk’s vaccine was about to become widely available, and the March of Dimes—which publicized efforts to eradicate the disease—was endorsing fundraisers [Classic 2 Platform Shoes Black Zanpa Heels Women zqAO5p] to purchase vaccine doses and cover treatment costs of those afflicted. In the emergency drive to direct money toward those efforts, teens went door-to-door, hosted bake sales, and sold lemonade.

If don’t have an Instant Pot at home, you may be skeptical of the hype surrounding this hot new kitchen gadget. The electronic pressure cooker works for many dishes once limited to the oven or stove top, and according to fans, it makes cooking them a lot less stressful. Looking for some recipes to convert you to the Instant Pot camp? Start with these notoriously tricky dishes you may have avoided in the past.

1. BROWN RICE


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Why It's Hard: Brown rice delivers a whole lot of nutritious bang for your buck, but it’s also famously unforgiving to home cooks. Mess up your rice-to-water ratio and you end up with rice that’s soupy and mushy; leave it on the stove for a few minutes too long and your rice comes out dry, or worse, burnt. The whole cooking process takes 45 minutes to an hour.

How an Instant Pot Makes It Easy: Like a rice cooker, an Instant Pot delivers perfectly steamed rice that requires little-to-no babysitting on your part. When preparing brown rice in an electric pressure cooker, you should use a rice-to-water ratio of approximately 2 cups to 2.5 cups, according to the food blog Our Best Bites. Cook for 22 to 24 minutes (depending on your elevation), and then give the pot a chance to release its pressure naturally for about 5 to 10 minutes. Your rice should come out fluffy and flavorful.

2. CHEESECAKE


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Why It's Hard: Cheesecake is one of those treats that rarely turns out as good at home as it does when you order it from your favorite diner. Unlike other cakes, it has to be cooked in a hot water bath: Without one, you end up with ugly cracks breaking up the top. Between the 20-minute prep time, two-hour cook time, and the time it takes to cool down, baking cheesecake can be an all-day affair.

How an Instant Pot Makes It Easy: Cheesecake may not be the first thing that comes to mind when you think of cooking in an Instant Pot, but once you try it you’ll never go back. The food blog Little Spice Jar recommends preparing the graham cracker crust and cream cheese filling like you normally would, then placing the cake on a steaming rack inside the Instant Pot above one-and-a-quarter cups of water. Instead of sitting in a water bath, the cake steams, ensuring a perfectly smooth top. Allow it to cook on manual high pressure for 37 minutes, then let the Instant Pot naturally release pressure for another 25. Your cake will be cooked through in a little over one hour instead of two. (You'll still have to let it cool for a couple of hours, though.)

3. POACHED EGGS


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Why It's Hard: It isn't easy to perfect poached eggs at home. Get it right, and you have a flawless white pillow that oozes with runny yolk the moment you pierce it with your fork. Get it wrong, and you have an egg with ragged, wispy whites and a yolk that’s broken or overcooked. The method for poaching an egg on the stove top involves dropping it in gently boiling water, a method that leaves a lot of room for error.

How an Instant Pot Makes It Easy: Poaching an egg with an Instant Pot is one step above hard-boiling it on the difficulty scale. This recipe from Cooking with Curls has you crack eggs into silicone cups rather than directly into a pot. Once your cups are filled, place them on a steaming rack inside your Instant Pot above one cup of water. Seal the lid and steam them for a few minutes to get round, neat, Benedict-ready poached eggs.

4. RISOTTO


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CH Bronze Cobb Flop Hill Flip Women's Renee Rockport Why It's Hard: Anyone who’s watched a competitive cooking show knows that risotto is infamous among chefs. The recipe, which involves stirring rice with liquid until it reaches a creamy consistency, is seemingly simple, but add the liquid too quickly, or not often enough, and you’ll miss out on that luscious texture the dish is known for. If you’re doing it right, making risotto can take up to 30 minutes of your undivided attention.

How an Instant Pot Makes It Easy: With an Instant Pot, making 7-minute risotto without the constant stirring is a possibility. This recipe from Hip Cooking has home chefs toast their rice in a preheated pressure cooker like you would with conventional risotto. Once the rice is ready, add the broth, seal the lid, and leave it to cook for five to six minutes. After releasing the pressure and giving the rice a good stir, your risotto should be ready to hit the plate.

5. MAC AND CHEESE


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Why It's Hard: Homemade DolphinGirl Navy Prime blue Bohemian Simple Summer Thong Flat T Sandals Shoes Strap rrUn7O is one of life’s greatest pleasures. It also requires a lot of work, including cooking pasta, making a roux, and baking it all together in the oven. More steps means more time, more dishes to clean, and more opportunities to mess up.

How an Instant Pot Makes It Easy: Instant Pot mac and cheese is even more convenient than the boxed stuff. Instead of dirtying multiple pots, throw your ingredients—dry pasta, water, butter, seasonings—into your pressure cooker, says food blog Center Cut Cook. After leaving it to cook at high pressure for four minutes, release the pressure and add evaporated milk and a blend of shredded cheeses. Mix the ingredients to achieve gooey, cheesy goodness.

6. BAKED POTATOES


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Why It's Hard: Traditional baked potatoes are less difficult than they are time-consuming. To get fluffy oven-baked potatoes at home, you need to be prepared to wait about US Training Free 8 Flyknit Cross 5 Sz Shoes Transform M B Nike 7q8vw6v.

How an Instant Pot Makes It Easy: An Instant Pot makes this simple dish even simpler. For this recipe from Self Proclaimed Foodie, just add a cup of water to the bottom of your pressure cooker, place your potato on the steaming rack, and close the lid. Cook the potatoes at high pressure for 12 to 20 minutes, then naturally release the pressure for another 10. That’s all it takes to transform your potatoes from hard and starchy to soft and creamy.

7. POT ROAST


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Why It's Hard: Pot roast is a great meal to make on a lazy Sunday—not so much on a weeknight. The dish traditionally features a tougher cut of meat like chuck roast that needs to be cooked low and slow in a braising liquid until it becomes fall-apart tender. Depending on the size of your cut, the cooking process alone can take three to four hours.

How an Instant Pot Makes It Easy: Meet your new weeknight dinner staple. This recipe for pressure cooker pot roast from Amy + Jack cuts your roasting time in half and tastes just as good as a chuck roast cooked in a dutch oven. Start by browning your meat and sautéing your onions and garlic inside the hot Instant Pot. Load these ingredients into the pot with a cup of chicken stock and allow them to cook at high pressure for 45 minutes. Wait another 25 minutes for the cooker to depressurize naturally before removing the roast, and then add your vegetables and cook them on high for four minutes. Do a quick pressure release before taking out the vegetables and use the remaining juices to make your gravy.

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A good way to create dissent and friction among your social group is to bring up politics. The next best way: Debate the merits of apple varieties. For years, the Red Delicious—firm, crunchy, with a tough skin resistant to bruising—has been the most popular choice among consumers. According to Slate, however, real apple aficionados consider it the most generic choice, arguing that it lacks the flavor of a Gala or Honeycrisp.

Apple snobs now have statistics on their side. According to the U.S. Apple Association, the Red Delicious has been knocked off its perch as the top apple for the first time in five decades. Its successor, the Gala, is now the top crop.

That declaration comes as growers are prepared to ship 52.4 million boxes of Galas this year, a 5.8 percent increase over 2017. Red Delicious, meanwhile, has seen its popularity decline by 11 percent, with 51.7 million boxes going out in 2018. While Granny Smith and Fuji apples are in third and fourth place, respectively, they each only ship about half the quantity of the top two. The popular-but-expensive Honeycrisp will likely crack the top five for the first time this year and could rise to third place by 2020.

Food and agriculture experts have pointed to an increased variety of tasty fruits as the major reason Red Delicious consumption has declined. Apples like the Gala and Honeycrisp tend to be sweeter, crisper, and less of a chore to consume than the Red, which has long been identified as a perfunctory fresh food—the kind stuffed without thought into lunch bags, doled out in cafeterias, or handed out by joyless people on Halloween.

Most contemporary apples were originally imported from Europe. (The Honeycrisp is more of an experiment, created by a University of Minnesota researcher in 1991 after he cross-pollinated apple seeds.) The maligned Red Delicious was first discovered in the late 1800s by an Iowa farmer who foreshadowed the animosity some would have toward the fruit. After discovering the tree on his property, he kept trying to kill it.

[h/t Slate]

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